The word cave means “a natural underground chamber in a hill side or cliff”.It is a hallow place in the ground,large enough for a human to enter.Caves form naturally by weathering of rock and often extend deep underground.Caves can be variable sizes.These may involve or combination of chemical processes,erosion from water,tectonic forces,microorganisms,pressure and atmospheric influences.The formation and development of caves is known as Speleogenesis.Speleology is the science of exploration and study all aspects of caves and the environment that surrounds the caves.It is estimated that the maximum depth of the cave cannot be more than 3000 metres i,e.,9,800 feet due to the pressure of overlying rocks.Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution.Exploring a cave for recreation or science may be called caving,potholing or Spelunking.
So now let us go for caving!!!!!!!!!!!!
Borra caves are located in the Araku valley of the Ananthagiri hill range,Andhra Pradesh.Borra caves is also called as Borra Guhalu located in the East Coast of India.They are situated at a distance of 90-95 kilometers from the city of Visakapatnam.They are located at the height of 1450 feet above the sea level.They are spread in the Ananthagiri hill range of Eastern Ghats,which ranges between 800 to 1300 meters.
The Borra caves are said to be more than 150 years old.In 1807,William King George of the Geological survey of India discovered the caves.There is one story for this caves.That is once a cowherd lost his cow while grazing.He soon realized that his cow has fallen down.He got worried,on looking down he found 60 feet deep hole,where he saw cow.His cow was alive and feeding on grass deep below.This was the time when tribal had discovered the cave.The cowherd while searching found a stone inside the cave that resembled a Lingam.There is even religious significance of the Borra caves.Since many million year old these caves holds the great religious important among the Hindus in India.The village folk who heard the story believed it and since then they have built a small temple for Lord Shiva outside the cave.
Another story is that the Shiva Lingam representing the Hindu God Lord Shiva, is found deep in the caves and above which is a stone formation of a cow.The name of the cow is KAMADHENU.It is believed that the udder of this cow is the source of the Gosthani river.The river flows through Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam districts.
FORMATION OF BORRA CAVES:
Borra caves are the one of the beautiful caves inthe India.These are naturally formed caves.These caves are said to be originated from the Gosthani river.These river flows through these caves.The humic acid in the water reacts with Calcium Carbonate in the limestone and dissolves the minerals breaking the rock gradually.The Perennial water flow over a period of time flows results in the formation of caves.The pressure was exerted by the humic acid in the water on the mineral deposits and teh limestone trickled down drop by drop forming the different shapes in the cave.These Borra caves spreaded over one square kilometer and are formed over the period of millions of years.
ABOUT THE CAVES:
A t the entry the cave measures upto 1000 meters(328.1 feet) horizontally and 75 meters(246.1 feet)vertically .The cave is filled with Stalagmite and Stalacite formations.Visitors have given different names to the different shapes of these Stalagmite and Stalacite formations such as Shiv Parvathi,Mother child,Human brain etc.,.We can find here crystal white calcium stones in various forms.The Borra caves glows and illuminates by thesixty three lamps of mercury,sodium vapour and halogen.
JOURNEY AND CLIMATE:
People can go Araku by train.It will be a very beautiful journey.We can see picturesque landscape with greenary,peaks and valley.Before reaching the main station i.e.,.Borra Guhalu Railway station the train passes through 42 tunnels.But the return journey can be by bus.
The average temperature of Araku hills,where the caves are situated is about 25 degree celsius.The average annual rainfall reported is 950 mm(3.1 feet) mostly occuring the northeast monsoon.
You can have your accomodation in Visakapatnam or Tyda Jungle Bells which is 15 kilometers away from the caves.There is no special accomodation available close to Borra caves.The nearest accomodation available in Tyda Jungle Bells and Araku 36 kilometers away from the caves.This place is carried by Araku Valley package tour.
For the adults the entry fee is Rupees 25 and for children Rupees 15.For photography your own cameras can be carried but need to pay Rupees 40 and for video cameras Rupees 100.
From 10:00 am to 5:00 pm (1:00 to 2:00 lunch break)
All days open even on seasons.
The experience after visiting this caves will be very beautiful,cannot express in words everything in the cave will be amazing and left the visitor in doubt about how this beautiful cave was created!!!