The place Giza is actually a governorate of Cairo which is the capital of Egypt. Cairo is generally referred to as ‘a city in its own’. Giza is heavily populated place in the Cairo metropolis. The world famous Pyramids of Giza are known as the best part of Cairo. Nowadays Cairo is known because of Giza. The Pyramids of Giza are situated on high desert plateau valley which is on the Pyramids Road. The road itself is named after the famous Pyramids of Giza. The Great Pyramid of Giza with its pyramid structures symbolizes the ancient Egyptian civilization. Another ancient wonder, namely the Grand Museum of Egypt, is situated around the same area. The Grand Museum was designed by the Irish architectural team; Shih-Fu Peng was leading the team. The Pyramid of Khufu and the Pyramid of Cheops are the other names of the Great Pyramid of Giza.
In the Giza Necropolis borders, there are in all three old pyramids. The area is now known by the name ‘El Giza, Egypt’. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the largest and the oldest among these three Pyramids. The Great Pyramid of Giza is among the list of the ‘Seven Wonders of the Ancient World’. This is the only wonder which is largely intact from the era in which it was formed. And this wonder is also the oldest wonder among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The whole interior portion of the Great Pyramid of Giza was fully examined by researchers. And it was quoted by the Egyptologists and the Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu that the pyramid was originally built as a tomb and it took over 10 to 20 years to build the tomb starting from 2560 BC. From over 3,800 years the pyramid is the tallest structure in the world build by man as the structure was of 481 feet (146.5 metres) initially.
People who will visit this pyramid will see an underlying core structure. This core structure is actually an outer covering of casing stones to make the surface smooth. Some of these casing stones are detached now and can be seen around the base. Nothing exact can be said about the construction the Great Pyramid as the construction techniques they used are not fully known by the Egyptologists. Their scientific theories seem to be alternative. One technique that was discovered before was that they moved the stones one on the top of the other using a quarry and then dragged them into their proper places by lifting them. But whether they actually used this technique or not can’t be said till now.
Inside the Great Pyramid of Giza there are three chambers. The lowest chamber consists of the bedrock on which the whole pyramid was built. It was later found that the lowest chamber was left unfinished. On the higher level there is the King’s chamber and the Queen’s Chamber within the Pyramid. Both the ascending and descending passages are present in this chamber and this makes the Great Pyramid the only pyramid in Egypt to have both the Passages. There are two mortuary temples in the main portion of the Giza complex. One was build near the Nile and the other one was build close to the Great Pyramid. Both the mortuary temples were dedicated to honor Khufu. To Honor Khufu’s wives three small pyramids were build. There is a boardwalk which connects the two temples, small mastaba tombs and a tiny ‘Satellite’ pyramid
The Great Pyramid of Giza has been the victim of many thefts. And if the history reports were to be believed it was the Arabs who stole the white limestone casing which is missing now. They even tried to dissemble the whole Pyramid by removing the stones of the top 30 feet of the pyramid but they gave up when the task couldn’t get completed. During the ancient times many robbers robbed the pyramid also. A huge sarcophagus lid which was supposed to be in the pyramid was missing from the pyramid. In 1638 John Greaves, an English mathematician researched about the missing treasures and found that the gateway to the Grand Gallery along the descending passage was blocked with debris. Thus, it is possible that the thieves put some granite plugs to enter the place for theft. After examining the amount of debris and the size of the passage it was told that the thieves may have used this gateway to take all the treasure.
It is being said that to the Khufu’s contemporary Egyptian subjects the pharaoh was a god not just a king. According to them it was pharaoh who linked their lives with the immortals. Pharaoh has a continuous influence on the gods thus they choose to keep his body in this eternal tomb, ‘The Great Pyramid’. They said that the Pyramid is a symbol of a link between heaven and earth and possess high power. That’s why they placed their most prestigious possession in this tomb. There are many stories about this but most of them are definitely false as only one can be true. Many engineers claimed that fewer years and fewer men were needed than being said to build this complete structure. They also claimed that there is no need to use any complicated machineries to build this Pyramid. But we can’t even believe the engineers also because by the time they examined the Pyramid, the pyramid was already almost 20 centuries old. So it is possible that both the engineers and the Greek historians got it wrong and much of the truth about the pyramid and its construction is clocked in the mists of history.